Volume 13, April 13, 2017 for the WSL Updates mailing list
April 12th, 2017 Will Stuivenga Posted in Digital Collections, Federal and State Publications, For Libraries, For the Public, Grants and Funding, News, State Library Collections, Training and Continuing Education, Updates Comments Off on WSL Updates for April 13, 2017
Volume 13, April 13, 2017 for the WSL Updates mailing list
April 10th, 2017 Rand Simmons Posted in Articles, Digital Collections, Federal and State Publications, For Libraries, For the Public Comments Off on Lights, Signals, Buoys, and Daymarks — Our Rich Heritage
A lighthouse is … Although we often think of a tower with a bright light at the top, located on an important or dangerous waterway, lighthouses are quite varied in architecture. They had, and still have, two main purposes — to serve as navigational aids and to warn ships of dangerous areas.
Historical record tell us that one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Pharos located in Alexandria, Egypt, was the first lighthouse recorded in history, built around 280 BC and as tall as a 45-story building. An open fire at the top of the tower was the source of light.
Following Independence from England, the newly formed U.S. Congress created the Lighthouse Establishment as an administrative unit of the federal government on 7 August 1789.
Benjamin Franklin, a United States founding father, is sometimes attributed with having said, “Lighthouses are more useful than churches.”
What Franklin actually wrote to his wife after narrowly escaping a shipwreck was, “The bell ringing for church, we went thither immediately, and with hearts full of gratitude, returned sincere thanks to God for the mercies we had received: were I a Roman Catholic, perhaps I should on this occasion vow to build a chapel to some saint, but as I am not, if I were to vow at all, it should be to build a light-house.”
My own fascination with lighthouses began when as a child our family took short trips to the middle and southern Oregon coasts. We visited lighthouses on the Coquille River in Bandon; Umpqua River in Reedsport; and later, as an adult I explored the Yaquina Bay lighthouse in Newport.
So, recently when grubbing about among the State Library’s shelves of historic federal publications and coming across Light List Pacific Coast, United States, 1933 I naturally began leafing through the Oregon and Washington sections to see how many lighthouses I recognized.
“The Aids to Navigation mission of the U. S. Coast Guard has a history dating back to the building and illumination of the first American lighthouse on Little Brewster Island in Boston Harbor in 1716. At first, because of the indifference of England, local or colonial governments had to shoulder the responsibility of making the waters safe for mariners.” Hence, the founding of the Lighthouse Establishment created by the U.S. Congress of the United States in 1789. Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, was its first administrator.
The first federal agency formally charged with responsibility for lighthouses was the Treasury Department.
With each organizational shift the Light List continued to be published.
Currently, the Light List is published in 7 volumes each reflecting one of seven regions. The Pacific and Pacific Islands volume includes the eleventh (California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona), thirteenth (Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana), fourteenth (Hawaii), and seventeenth (Alaska) districts. It contains a lists of lights, sound signals, buoys, day beacons, and other aids to navigation. As it has been from the beginning of The Light List, it is published by the Government Publishing Office, the official publisher of the federal government. Learn more.
Light List is available online: Pacific Coast and Pacific Islands. Contemporary issues may be available either in print or microfiche and since 2002 they have been distributed to federal depository libraries (like us) only in microfiche. Check with the State Library’s public services staff if you need assistance.
There are eighteen active lighthouses in the state, one of which serves as a museum. In addition, three are standing but inactive (one of these is now a museum), three were supplanted by automated towers, and two have been completely demolished. The Cape Disappointment Light was the first lighthouse in the state (lit in 1856) and is still active. It sits where the Columbia River meets the Pacific Ocean following its 1,243 mile journey.
Click on a Washington lighthouse name for information about it
|Admiralty Head||Alki Point||Browns Point|
|Burrows Island||Bush Point||Cape Disappointment|
|Cape Flattery||Cattle Point||Destruction Island|
|Dofflemeyer Point||Ediz Hook||Gig Harbor|
|Grays Harbor (Westport)||Lightship Swiftsure LV 83/WAL 513||Lime Kiln|
|Marrowstone Point||Mukilteo||New Dungeness|
|North Head||Patos Island||Point No Point|
|Point Robinson||Point Wilson||Skunk Bay|
|Slip Point||Turn Point||West Point|
A list of Washington State lighthouses can also be found at “Historic Light Station Information & Photography.” on the U.S. Coast Guard Historian’s Office web site.
The history includes both active and deactivated lighthouses. Some entries point to photographs.
The Washington State Library’s Washington Rural Heritage is a collaborative project that facilitates sharing of local history materials from libraries, museums, and private collections of citizens across Washington State. To date one hundred twenty-nine cultural institutions have participated in the project.
The Orcas Island Heritage Collection was a collaboration of the Orcas Island Public Library Orcas Island Historical Museum. One of the interesting stories in the collection is about the Pole Pass Light. Search the collection and you will find 19 entries.
“Pole Pass, is a narrow rocky pass in Deer Harbor between Orcas and Crane islands. In the late 1800s and early 1900s steamboats hired someone to hold a light if they had to go through at night. Finally about 1940 a permanent light was constructed.”
“Watching the blinkers on a dark night brings back many memories to the old settlers still living near Pole pass. They recall shipwrecks in the old days and have a warm place in their hearts at the thoughtfulness of the lightkeepers through the years. They are glad, too, for the progress that brings new lights as they are needed.”
Irene Barfoot O’Neill, daughter of the light keeper on Obstruction Island provides insight into life in a lighthouse:
“All of these lights were fueled by kerosene (coal oil). If the flame was not carefully adjusted, the chimney would be smoked and the light not seen clearly, thus endangering the lives of those traveling on the boats which depended upon the light being visible for the required distance.
The lamp itself was much the same as an ordinary household lamp and chimney, but the outer glass protection globe was thick because of the magnification in the manufacturing process. As I remember, the round globes were about 10″ high by 8″ in diameter. The oil tank held enough to last seven days, requiring a trip once a week to refill the tank and clean the lamps. If a storm seemed imminent, father wouldn’t wait, especially in winter.
The only weather forecasting was done by reading the sky and cloud formations. Of course, the wind and tides were a consideration, as the only power was by oars or perhaps a sail …
The pay for this work wasn’t generous, but many times the $13.00 per month pay was our only cash income.
One of the highlights of our year was the semiannual visit of the lighthouse tender “Heather”, which brought oil, towels, extra chimneys, and other supplies which were stored on an 8′ by 8′ white-painted “oil house” near the beach. Oil came in wooden cases, with two five-gallon tins in each. When empty, these sturdy boxes and tins served many uses around the farm. With the top cut off and the sharp edges neatly hammered down, two of these tins sat of the back of our wood stove as a supply of hot water for dishes or whatever.”
Some lighthouses have become the property of and are managed by Washington State Parks:
In honor of National Lighthouse Day, August 7, 2016, Washington State Parks posted an article to their blog:
The Washington State Library is the depository of state agency publications published in many different formats. Publications from 1889 onward provide current and historical information about State government. They are a resource for research into Washington’s past and they are a cornerstone for Washington’s future. The State Library also maintains a system of depository libraries geographically spread across the state.
McCroskey, Lauren. Washington State Parks Historic Properties Condition Assessment Phase Ii: Eastern Region. Olympia, Wash.: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, 2000. Print: WA 719.3 P231was s23 2000.
Conconully State Park; Dalles Mountain Ranch, Horsethief Lake State Park; Northrup Canyon, Steamboat Rock State Park; Ohme Gardens State Park; Olmstead Place Park; Fort Simcoe State Park; Riverside State Park.
McCroskey, Lauren. Washington State Parks Historic Properties Condition Assessment Phase Ii: Northwest Region. Olympia, Wash.: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, 2000. Print: WA 719.3 P231was s22 2000.
Burrows Island lighthouse; Fort Casey State Park; Cowan Ranch, Hoko River State Park; Fort Flagler State Park; Lime Kiln Point State Park; Old Fort Townsend State Park; Patos Island lighthouse; Point Wilson lighthouse, Fort Worden State Park; O’Brien-Riggs property, Rockport State Park; Rothschild house. Burrows Island lighthouse; Fort Casey State Park; Cowan Ranch, Hoko River State Park; Fort Flagler State Park; Lime Kiln Point State Park; Old Fort Townsend State Park; Patos Island lighthouse; Point Wilson lighthouse, Fort Worden State Park; O’Brien-Riggs property, Rockport State Park; Rothschild house.
McCroskey, Lauren. Washington State Parks Historic Properties Condition Assessment Phase Ii: Southwest Region. Olympia, Wash.: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, 2000. Print: WA 719.3 P231was s28 2000.
Battleground Lake State Park; Fort Canby State Park; Fort Columbia State Park; Grays Harbor State Park; Pe Ell Section House; Siminiski House; Rainbow Falls State Park.
McCroskey, Lauren. Washington State Parks Historic Properties Condition Assessment Phase Ii: Technical Specifications & Technical Drawings. Olympia, Wash.: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, 2000. Print: WA 719.3 P231was s24 2000.
North Head Lighthouse: Established 1898. Olympia, WA: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, 2000. Print: WA 719.3 P231nor h 2012.
The State Library preserves and provides access to a comprehensive collection of information on the geographic area we now know as Washington State and the other identified regions of the Pacific Northwest: Oregon, Idaho, and Western Montana. The collection also contains works on Alaska, British Columbia and the Yukon Territory to reflect our shared histories.
Aliberti, Ray. Lighthouses Northwest: The Designs of Carl Leick. Coupeville, Wa. (P.O. Box 827, Coupeville 98239-0827): Aliberti, 2000. Print: NW 387.155 ALIBERT 2000; Historic Research and Rare Collection copies available for in-library use only.
Bache, Hartman. Early West Coast Lighthouses: Eight Drawings and Paintings. San Francisco: Book Club of California, 1964. Print: Historic Research and Rare Collection copies for in library use only.
Ehlers, Chad, and Jim Gibbs. Sentinels of Solitude: West Coast Lighthouses. San Luis Obispo, CA: EZ Nature Books, 1989. Print: R 387.155 EHLERS 1981, in-library use only.
Groth, Karen N. Westport’s Masterpiece: Building the Grays Harbor Lighthouse, 1897-98. Portland, Or: Nicholson Press, 2010. Print: NW 387.155 GROTH 2010; Historic Research copy available for in-library use only.
Hanable, William S. Lighthouses and Lifesaving on Washington’s Outer Coast: 15 Historic Postcards. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub, 2009. Print: NW 387.155 HANABLE 2009; Historic Research copy available for in-library use only.
Leffingwell, Randy, and Pamela Welty. Lighthouses of the Pacific Coast: Your Guide to the Lighthouses of California, Oregon, and Washington. Minneapolis: Voyageur Press, 2010. Print: NW 387.155 LEFFING 2000; Historic Research copy available for in-library use only.
Lighthouses of the Northwest. Howes Cave, N.Y: Hartnett House Map Publishers, 2005. Print: NW 387.155 HARTNET 2000; Historic Research copy available for in-library use only.
Lucero, Donella J, and Nancy L. Hobbs. Guardian of the Columbia River: Cape Disappointment Lighthouse, 1856-2006. Long Beach, Wash.?: Willapa Communications, 2006. Print: NW 387.155 LUCERO 2006; Historic Research copy available for in-library use only.
Lucero, Donella J, and Nancy L. Hobbs. North Head Lighthouse. Long Beach, Wash.?: Willapa Communications, 2006. Print: NW 387.155 LUCERO 2006; Historic Research copy available for in-library use only.
McCurdy, James G. Cape Flattery and Its Light: Life on Tatoosh Island. Seattle: Shorey Book Store, 1966. Print: R OVERSIZ 387.155 MCCURDY 1966 in-library use only.
McDaniel, Nancy L. A Sound Defense: Military Sites, Lighthouses, and Memorials of Puget Sound. Chimacum, Wash: Nancy L. McDaniel, 2013. Print: NW 917.9704 MCDANIE 2013; Historic Research copy available for in-library use only.
Nelson, Sharlene P. Umbrella Guide to Washington Lighthouses. Friday Harbor, WA (PO Box 1460, Friday Harbor 98250-1460): Umbrella Books, 1990. Print: NW 387.155 NELSON 1990; Historic Research copy available for in-library use only.
Roberts, Bruce, and Ray Jones. Lighthouses of Washington: A Guidebook and Keepsake. Guilford, Conn: Insiders’ Guide, 2006. Print: NW 387.155 ROBERTS 2006
Roberts, Bruce, and Ray Jones. Pacific Northwest Lighthouses: Oregon to the Aleutians. Old Saybrook, Conn: Globe Pequot Press, 1997. Print: NW 387.155 ROBERTS 1997; In-library use only copy also available.
Survey Correspondence, Washington Territory: Records of the Bureau of Land Management. Washington? D.C.: The Bureau?, 1980. Microfilm: NW MICRO 333.16 SURVEY 188-?, 2 reels, for in-library use only.
Washington Lighthouses: Photographic Essay. Tacoma, WA: Smith-Western Co, 2000. Print: R 387.155 WASHING 200-?, in-library use only.
“Washington Secretary of State – Legacy Washington – Washington History: Historical Maps Detail.” Washington Secretary of State – Legacy Washington – Washington History: Historical Maps Detail, U.S. Corp of Engineers, 1881, www.sos.wa.gov/legacy/maps/maps_detail.aspx?m=22. Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.
In print: Symons, T. W. (Thomas William), 1849-1920. [Washington, D.C. : Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army], 1881. In library use only. Request ahead of time.
Symons, T. W. (Thomas William), 1849-1920. [Washington, D.C.] : Office of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army, 1885. In library use only. Request ahead of time.
Society, Saltwater People Historical. “Saltwater People Log, Saltwater People Historical Society, 6 Nov. 2013, http://bit.ly/2n4v1UE. Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.
Strobridge, Truman R. “CHRONOLOGY OF AIDS TO NAVIGATION.” Historic Light Stations, United State Coast Guard, 21 Dec. 2016, www.uscg.mil/history/articles/h_USLHSchron.asp. Accessed 6 Mar. 2017. Excellent chronology and list of resources.
“Lighthouses: FAQ.” Fact Monster from Information Please, Sandbox Networks, Inc., Publishing as Fact Monster., www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0800631.html. Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.
“List of Lighthouses in Washington.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 20 Mar. 2017, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_lighthouses_in_Washington. Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.
“Historic Light Station Information & Photography.” Coast Guard Lighthouses, U.S. Coast Guard, www.uscg.mil/history/weblighthouses/LHWA.asp. Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.
Thiesen, William H. “Coast Guard Lighthouses and the History of the ‘Flying Santa.” The Retiree Newsletter, pp. 9–10, www.uscg.mil/hr/psc/retnews/2017/January17newsletter.pdf. Accessed 3 Apr. 2017.
“U. S. Coast Guard Monuments & Memorials .” Coast Guard Monuments & Memorials, US Coast Guard, www.uscg.mil/history/faqs/uscgmemorials.asp. Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.
How to purchase a lighthouse: “Coast Guard History.” USCG: Frequently Asked Questions, U.S. Coast Guard, Historian’s Office, www.uscg.mil/history/faqs/Lighthouse_Keepers.asp. Accessed 22 Mar. 2017.
How to become a lighthouse keeper: “Coast Guard History.” USCG: Frequently Asked Questions, U.S. Coast Guard, Historian’s Office, www.uscg.mil/history/faqs/Lighthouse_Keepers.asp. Accessed 22 Mar. 2017.
“Stay at a Washington Lighthouse.” Stay at a Washington Lighthouse, United States Lighthouse Society, www.stayatawashingtonlighthouse.org/. Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.
Need assistance finding state or federal publications? Contact our Ask a Librarian service.
The following State Library staff contributed to this article: Sean Lanksbury, Pacific Northwest and Special Collections Librarian, Evan Robb, Digital Repository Librarian; Nikki Chiampa, Digital Projects Librarian.
On March 18, 2017, Sue Richart, digitization technician and officer at the Stevens County Historical Society, delivered a presentation to approximately 75 members of the Northeast chapter of the Washington Farm Forest Association. She introduced them to the historical resources in the Colville National Forest Collection and the Stevens County Heritage Collection. Attendees received Washington Rural Heritage bookmarks directing them to the online collection. According to Sue, folks commented that they very much enjoyed the presentation!
Volume 13, March 16, 2017 for the WSL Updates mailing list
1) WASHINGTON RURAL HERITAGE GRANTS
2) USER EXPERIENCE JUMPSTART
3) METADATA CLEANUP GRANTS
4) ONECLICK 2017 RENEWAL
5) LIBRARY 2.017 VIRTUAL CONFERENCE
6) FREE CE OPPORTUNITIES NEXT WEEK
The Centralia Daily Hub began as an Independent newspaper on September 29, 1913 with editor George A. Dew and publisher Madison “Elsy” Ellsworth Cue at the helm. The other publisher of the paper was the Hub Printing Company, Inc., an enterprise of which Cue was president. The Daily Hub was issued every afternoon with the exception of Sundays, reporting on both international and local news. Within a year of its inception, circulation of the paper had risen to approximately 1,141 issues, with distribution in Centralia and surrounding towns. During this time, Dew left his post at the paper and was succeeded by Victor Jackson. When Jackson left the paper in 1915, Cue ended up taking on the editorial role as well.
Significant events, including WW1, Women’s Suffrage, and Prohibition initially appeared as headlines on the front page. As time wore on, however, the newspaper shifted its focus to cover more socially inclined news on a local scale. The Daily Hub often took on a moral stance and eschewed objective reporting in its articles. When referring to the “drys,” those fighting for Prohibition, the paper describes the group as the “better element of this city.” In contrast, it berates the “clique” of local bankers and businessmen, declaring that these men defrauded the city during Centralia’s financial crisis of 1914. The Daily Hub remained righteous even when the topic was not political, expressing outrage at provocative movie posters on display at a local theater. The paper claims that “those whose mission it is to uplift, protest, and help to a better living” were being careless and slothful with their duties.
By its third year of publication, The Daily Hub was boasting of its “clear conscience” and the enemies it has gained, labeling their opponents as the “lawless and predatory” populace of Centralia. However, staff of The Daily Hub were not immune to the consequences of their antagonism. In one case, Vera Reynolds, a staff writer, was arraigned in court for libel. She alleged in one of her articles that prosecuting attorney Chester Alan Studebaker and Sheriff Thomas C. Foster were “laid out” by Frank Nehring, whom they were attempting to arrest. Even The Daily Hub’s publisher, M.E. Cue, was tried in court multiple times and charged in 1916 for throwing a pig of linotype metal at Joe Lucas, a local theater manager.
After only five years and with 2,228 papers in circulation, The Daily Hub officially ceased publication on March 30, 1918. It was succeeded by The Centralia Evening Hub, which ran for the month of April that same year. Immediately thereafter, it transformed into the Republican paper, The Centralia Daily Hub, which was issued from May 1, 1918 until publication was suspended on April 10, 1919. During these rapid changes, M.E. Cue and his company remained as publishers up to the final issue of the paper’s demise. Although the Centralia Daily Hub announced plans to return from its “sabbatical,” it had no successors.
The Centralia Daily Hub along with many other early Washington newspapers can be found on our Washington Digital Newspapers website.
As 2016 comes to a close, we here at Washington Rural Heritage are at a crossroads. We’re steadily working with our grantees on this past year’s collections, and at the same time, we’re looking forward to the new projects that we will be helping with next year. But before we get ahead of ourselves, let’s take the time to stop and reflect on what our community has accomplished from 2015 to 2016 in their efforts to preserve Washington’s cultural heritage.
Highlights of these collections include:
Digitization of these collections in 2015-2016 was accomplished with a grant award from the Washington State Library, funded by the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) through the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS).
Washington public and tribal libraries will be eligible for our next round of digitization grants to be announced in early 2017. Questions about the grant opportunity should be directed to Evan Robb, Digital Repository Librarian, email@example.com, (360) 704-5228.
Volume 12, December 1, 2016 for the WSL Updates mailing list
1) FINDING SOMETHING TO READ NOW WEBINAR
2) MORE TITLES IN WASHINGTON DIGITAL NEWSPAPERS
3) FREE LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH WSL
4) GALE PUBLIC LIBRARY RENEWAL
5) REFERENCE SERVICES COURSE ONLINE
6) FREE CE OPPORTUNITIES NEXT WEEK
November 17th, 2016 Shirley Lewis Posted in Digital Collections, For Libraries, Grants and Funding, Letters About Literature, News, Training and Continuing Education, Updates Comments Off on WSL Updates for November 17, 2016
Volume 12, November 17, 2016 for the WSL Updates mailing list
1) UPCOMING PROQUEST TRAINING
2) WASHINGTON RURAL HERITAGE NAMED A BEST SITE
3) LETTERS ABOUT LITERATURE CONTEST
4) 2ND ANNUAL HISTORICAL ZINE CONTEST
5) NEA BIG READ ACCEPTING GRANT APPLICATIONS
6) FREE CE OPPORTUNITIES NEXT WEEK
COLUMBIA Magazine contributor Lionel Youst recently contacted us to identify a ca. 1901-1905 photo of a covered wagon (at right). The wagon is depicted aboard the Columbia River steamboat Charles R. Spencer. This badly-faded albumen print is from the Stevenson Community Library’s Skamania County Heritage digital collection (click image to see full record). Despite the photo’s poor condition, Youst spotted something about the wagon’s canvas cover—a large tear. It made him recall a detail from the reminiscences of his grandfather. Here’s what he told us:
“My grandparents, Frank and Alice Youst sold their homestead in Woods County, Oklahoma Territory and headed toward Centralia, Washington on August 22, 1903. [Their family of five] stopped and worked the horses at railroad construction and mining jobs on the way out. The canvas sheet [on the family’s wagon] was badly torn when it tipped over trying to go around a slide on the road over the Rocky Mountains. Dad said it was too hard to sew, and it remained torn all the way out to Centralia. I think what we see on the left side bottom of the sheet is a tear—bigger than I thought it would be, but that could be it.”
With a bit of assistance from his friend Shirley Bridgham, Youst was able to tease a bit more detail out of the faded photo—click on the image at left to see a full-sized version of the optimized photo.
In addition to the tear, other details about the photo line up with Youst’s grandfather’s recollections.
“The last leg of the journey was from Tonopah, Nevada where Grandad was hauling ore. They came up through Eastern Oregon to Prineville and Madras, and on to The Dalles where they took passage on a steamboat with the three horses, the wagon, and the family, down through the Cascade Locks to Vancouver. They arrived in in Centralia, Washington on June 26, 1904, after 308 days on the road, a family of five living out of that wagon. They certainly boarded the steamboat at The Dalles on or about June 20, 1904—give or take two or three days.”
While we don’t have an exact date for the original photo, we do know that this photo was very likely taken at Cascade Locks (across the Columbia River from Stevenson), between 1901 and 1905, and that the Charles R. Spencer was one of the two steamboats running The Dalles to Portland/Vancouver route at that time.
So is it his grandparents’ wagon? According to Youst: “If it isn’t…it’s close enough!” For a detailed account of Youst’s family’s journey, see his upcoming article in COLUMBIA: The Magazine of Northwest History.
August 26th, 2016 Nono Burling Posted in Articles, Digital Collections, For Libraries, For the Public, State Library Collections Comments Off on Classics in Washington History – Army letters from an Officer’s Wife, 1871 – 1888
Army letters from an Officer’s Wife, written by: Frances M.A. Roe
Appleton And Company, New York and London
Publication date: October 1909
Note: In 1871, Lieutenant Colonel Fayette Washington Roe (1850-1916) was sent to Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory. His wife, Frances M.A. Roe, describes their experiences while stationed at the fort in this collection of letters.
“It is late, so this can be only a note to tell you that we arrived here safely, and will take the stage for Fort Lyon to-morrow morning at six o’clock. I am thankful enough that our stay is short at this terrible place, where one feels there is danger of being murdered any minute. Not one woman have I seen here, but there are men any number of dreadful-looking men each one armed with big pistols, and leather belts full of cartridges. But the houses we saw as we came from the station were worse even than the men. They looked, in the moonlight, like huge cakes of clay, where spooks and creepy things might be found. The hotel is much like the houses, and appears to have been made of dirt, and a few drygoods boxes. Even the low roof is of dirt. The whole place is horrible, and dismal beyond description, and just why anyone lives here I cannot understand.”
Excerpt by Frances M.A. Roe